Slaughterhouse Five Epub Free
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the transmission of pathogenic respiratory bacteria to thirteen 5-month-old specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs, during the slaughtering process in a commercial slaughterhouse. Before transportation, the SPF pigs and the lorry were checked to confirm the absence of pathogenic respiratory bacteria. Nine SPF pigs (group 1) were in contact in a conventional slaughterhouse with finishing pigs, during 4h before slaughtering. Four SPF pigs (group 2) were slaughtered immediately at arrival in the slaughterhouse. Five bacterial pathogens (Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis and Streptococcus suis) were detected by PCR, after slaughtering, from nasal cavities, tonsils and trachea in the two groups of pigs. Lung samples were PCR negative. Three and four bacterial species were isolated from the pigs of group 2 and group 1, respectively. Cultures were negative from the lungs. All the bacterial species present in the SPF pigs were detected by PCR. P. multocida was isolated, from three samples of scalding water before the onset of slaughtering. Our results suggest that the SPF pigs became contaminated mainly by the slaughterhouse environment and the scalding water. Histological examinations revealed that during scalding, contaminated water could reach the trachea and the lungs of pigs. Checks conducted at slaughter for respiratory disorders have to be carried on, but nasal cavities and tonsils are not appropriate for bacteriological investigations. Moreover, bacteriological results obtained from the lungs of slaughtered pigs have to be used with carefulness.
Slaughterhouse Five Epub Free
Scientific literature describes several routes of transmission of animal tuberculosis [48, 49]. The emergence of tuberculosis in wildlife  may constitute a continuous source for reinfection of cattle and could be at the origin of the persistence of bTB worldwide. This particularly holds for wild boar, which represent a new threat for livestock animals and agriculture in Algeria. Hence, the pathway of transmission of this pathogen in Algeria including wildlife needs to be studied. El Mrini et al.  described cases of tuberculosis due to M. bovis in Eurasian wild boar in Morocco. Without neglecting the role of re-infections within single cattle herds, mycobacteria may survive decades unrecognized in several biological niches due to the chronic subclinical course of infection, leading to persisting bTB in Algerian livestock. On the other hand, all our M. bovis strains were recovered from lungs and associated lymph nodes, suggesting a primarily airborne transmission of bTB to the cattle under study here and, consequently, an intimate contact between the respective animals. Indeed, combination of MIRU-VNTR allele diversity and spoligotyping pattern allowed us to unveil some possible epidemiological links. Constructing a minimum-spanning-tree revealed five clusters (spoligotype and MIRU-VNTR profile differing in 3 allels in maximum) with the largest one comprising of 14 strains. Two sub-profiles (one in the SB0121 cluster and the other in the SB2521 cluster) contained four strains, that were identical in their spoligotype and MIRU-VNTR profiles, two additional sub-profiles were represented by two strains each. The four strains of the SB2521 sub-profile were all isolated at the slaughterhouse Hussein Dey. It is tempting to assume that cross-infection occurred between animals within one herd or the same area. In contrast, both sub-profiles with four and two strains, respectively, within the spoligotype SB0121 contained strains probably from different areas in Algeria as the strains were isolated from cattle slaughtered in different abattoirs. This includes the slaughterhouses of Hussein Dey and Hadjout which are 88 km distant from each other (source of the strains belonging to the four strain sub-profile), as well as slaughterhouses in El Harrach and Hussein Dey which are more proximate to each other. As we consider it unlikely that one owner had delivered his cattle to different slaughterhouses, the occurrence of identical spoligotype/MIRU-VNTR profiles in different geographical areas might be explained by the trade of animals between herds in those areas. In two cluster, two different spoligotypes (SB0848 and SB0121 as well as SB0828 and SB0120) are combined. Both pairs differ from each other only in one spacer (no. 13 is missing in SB0848 compared to SB0121 as well as no. 34 is missing in SB0828 compared to SB0120) it might be possible that spoligotypes SB0828 and SB0848 may have originated from spoligotype SB0120 and SB0121, respectively, by undergoing a genetic mutation on spacer 13 respectively 34. The singular SB0848 strain and four SB0121 strains possess identical MIRU-VNTR profiles, supporting the close relatedness of both spoligotypes. 041b061a72